Increasing welder productivity
Overestimating welding arc-on time is a common mistake. Manufacturing operations may be surprised to discover that the average arc-on time in a semi-automatic welding operation is only 10-12%.
If companies aren’t thinking about how to improve arc-on time, they’re missing out on ways to improve throughput and the bottom line. Welding arc-on time directly affects how many parts go out the door each day.
The arc-on time metric doesn't include the time spent on part fit-up, prepping the material for welding, or post-weld cleaning or grinding, but these are steps that can add significant time to the overall process. It’s important to consider the activities performed before and after the weld to find ways to improve arc-on time.
Learn some tips on how to increase throughput in manufacturing applications that use gas metal arc welding (GMAW).
Tip No. 1: Pay attention to part fit-up
Long before a welder strikes an arc, proper part fit-up is a determining factor of welding efficiency. The welder may be responsible for part fit-up, or it could be someone else in the operation. Problems with part fit-up may even be traced all the way back to the engineering or design stage.
Taking time to ensure consistent, even part fit-up will eliminate gaps between the parts and pay off in time savings later. When there are large or uneven gaps between the parts being welded, it slows the welder down. It also increases the amount of spatter, which requires more time for post-weld grinding.
Tip No. 2: Use the right welding process
The idea of changing the welding process can be daunting for some manufacturers. It may require additional training and reapproval of any changes to the Welding Procedure Specification (WPS). But switching the process can yield significant productivity results in the right applications.
Welding process options include standard GMAW, modified short-circuit GMAW or numerous pulsed GMAW processes. If an operation has big part gaps that can’t be fixed in fit-up, for example, a modified short-circuit GMAW process is a good solution because it offers superior gap-filling capabilities.
Pulsed processes provide numerous benefits for productivity, including less spatter, lower heat input and faster travel speeds. A pulsed process can provide 10% faster travel speeds using the same heat input compared to straight GMAW. In addition, some advanced pulsed processes, such as Accu-Pulse™ technology from Miller Electric Mfg. LLC, offer a 28% wider operating window. This makes the process easier to use, so welders of all experience levels can create high-quality welds even when technique or parameters vary.
Making a change to the filler metal or shielding gas can also help improve productivity in the operation. Be aware that gas and filler metal changes may also require reapproval of the WPS.
Many manufacturers use a solid wire for GMAW applications, but flux-cored and metal-cored wires can offer benefits in certain applications. The right filler metal solution depends on the process being used, the material being welded and the shielding gas. For example, metal-cored wire can deliver significant productivity benefits thanks to very fast travel speeds, but it can be difficult to use in pulsed welding.
Different shielding gases may also be better suited to certain applications and processes. A 100% carbon dioxide gas is common in manufacturing because it’s affordable and offers easy weldability for operators with less experience. However, it results in much more spatter than a mixed gas, requiring more time for post-weld grinding. A mixed gas like 90% argon/10% CO2 can provide faster travel speeds and lay down a better weld. This results in less time spent on post-weld cleanup.
Tip No. 3: Check the parameters
Ensuring the parameters are correctly dialed in during welding is critical to producing good welds that don’t require time-consuming rework. Travel speed that is too fast or slow, heat input that is too hot or cold, and improper wire stickout are parameters to watch.
A too-slow travel speed results in more heat input in the weld zone that can cause warpage. Maintaining adequate travel speed helps control heat. But moving too fast (and too cold) can pour too much filler metal into the weld too quickly. This results in spatter or a lack of penetration that requires rework. Another cause of increased spatter is having too much wire stickout.
When the goal is improving arc-on time, the worst thing a welder can do is put down a bad weld that requires rework. Cutting out the bad weld and replacing it with a new weld can triple the time spent — or more.
Tip No. 4: Reduce troubleshooting time
Troubleshooting problems like wire feeding issues takes away from arc-on time, so it’s important to keep the GMAW gun properly maintained for optimal performance.
If the gun liner or contact tip is too worn or the drive roll tension is improperly adjusted, these problems will contribute to wire feeding issues that can result in increased spatter and poor weld quality. Weld quality issues are also commonly caused by worn weld cables or poor cable connections.
Before each shift — and after any changes are made in the welding process — double-check all consumable connections in the wire feeding system. This ensures everything is installed and tightened correctly. Also look for signs of wear or damage. This helps reduce the time spent troubleshooting, so the welder can spend more time under the hood.
Tip No. 5: Rely on technology
As the industry struggles with a skilled welder shortage and many companies seek ways to improve productivity, technology can help. When a welding power source delivers greater ease of use and improved arc control, it’s easier for welders of all skill levels to produce high-quality welds and reduce mistakes — and, therefore, improve arc-on time.
- Synergic control: More welding power sources are designed to automatically make changes to correspond to the operator’s adjustments. When the operator makes a change to wire feed speed, the machine adjusts the voltage to match, ensuring optimal parameters are used.
- Simplified setup: Some new welding systems offer an “easy button” for machine setup. Welders can get under the hood faster with these systems. This can be especially helpful for less experienced welders. With this technology, operators only need to set material thickness, and the power source will automatically set the other parameters appropriately. This saves time and helps reduce the chance for spatter and distortion that increase post-weld cleaning and may require rework.
- Locks and limits: Welding power sources that include this feature allow certain parameters to be locked within a set range. For example, if the lock is set at 28 to 32 volts, the operator can’t go outside of that window. When training new welders, this technology is helpful for keeping them within the parameter ranges for a specific job. Some systems also send alerts to managers or supervisors when a welder is working outside of specified parameters.
- Weld data monitoring: Digital weld monitoring is available on more power sources than ever, allowing manufacturers of all sizes to track important performance metrics. Available solutions range from basic systems that verify weld parameters and report on productivity to more advanced monitoring software that detects welding mistakes, tracks parts and delivers real-time feedback to welders. Tracking and understanding this data is a key part of improving arc-on time and productivity. This detailed data can also help manufacturers train new welders and get them up to speed faster.