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I used to build trailers and there is no set tongue length, it depends on the entire length of the trailer and how far you want to be able to cut it, as far as the axle placement, I always found the center of the trailer and move back one inch for every foot of the trailer, this keep it pretty balanced
The tongue length depends a lot upon the width of the trailer at the front. A narrow trailer can have a shorter tongue while a squared off nose of a trailer 102" wide needs a five foot tongue if possible. This is because you need to have room for tight backing. You can't turn it very sharp without danger of damaging the front of the trailer and back of tow vehicle makes for a very unfun trailering event.
Measure from the center of the ball to the farthest outside point on the bumper of the widest rig you plan on pulling it with. That'll give you the absolute minimum tongue length, unless you don't care if the corner of the trailer clears the bumper. Add an inch or three for fudge factor and ease of backing and it always comes out to four feet plus.